Archivos de Biotecnología Industrial


Bioethics and consumption of genetically modified crops

Rosa Martha Desentis Mendoza

Technological evolution opens an unlimited number of possibilities, but at the same time generates multiple doubts; In the case of transgenic seeds, the debate not only takes place in the technological field, also involves the social, cultural, political, economic and philosophical fields. Since then the advances of modern biotechnology and genetically modified foods have had a great growth and adoption at a global level and considered of great value to society. However, there are controversies and public concern about transgenic foods and crops, which focus on food security and environmental conservation, whether the consumer has the right or not to choose, if they are needed to face hunger in the world now or in the future, on intellectual property rights and ethics. In the almost 20 years since they were commercialized for the first time, the technologies of transgenic crops have experienced a dramatic breakthrough and it is undoubtedly one of the most controversial technologies that appear in the market in recent decades. A systematic review of the scientific literature on pros and cons in relation to the use of GMO for planting and human consumption was made, and an analysis of the findings from the bioethical perspectives, which allowed us to make a synthesis with which we established what is most appropriate regarding this subject in the light of bioethical principles. In summary, we can say that 70% of the articles reviewed, see the need to regulate the use and application of GMOs and 44% of the articles support a regulation of biosafety. In other words, most countries, seek to follow the same rules of control and prevention for the consumption of foods derived from genetically modified organisms in order to avoid any risk to human health or environment. Our main recommendation is to continue scientifically founded research on genetically modified foods and to evaluate them through an International Committee periodically, in order to detect early negative effects on ecology, economy and human and animal health.